Thursday, October 19, 2006

Studii stiintifice legate de discromatopsii

-> studii legate de siguranta circulatiei pentru
persoanele cu deficiente de culoare sau legate de color vision in
general

1.)

[Romana]


Academia Americana de Oftalmologie
Declaratie de Pozitie: Cerinte Vizuale pentru Conducerea Autovehiculelor
http://www.aao.org/aao/member/policy/driving.cfm

...
"Vederea Tricromata
Anumite state testeaza vederea tricromata, anticipand ca aceasta este importanta
pentru identificarea corecta a semnalelor din trafic, insa conducatorii auto cu deficiente
de culoare, folosesc cu succes detalii, altele decat culorile. Studiile arata ca nu exista nici
o asociere intre deficienta de culoare si abilitatea redusa de a conduce (10,15), iar aceasta
componenta a sistemului vizual nu trebuie inclusa in testele vizuale, pentru a determina
abilitatea unui individ de a conduce fara riscuri."
...

[Engleza]

American Academy of Ophtalmology
Policy Statement: Vision Requirements for Driving
http://www.aao.org/aao/member/policy/driving.cfm

...
"Color vision
Some states test color vision, anticipating that it is important for
identifying traffic signals accurately, but drivers with color
deficiencies successfully use clues other than color. Studies show no
association between color deficiency and reduced driving performance
(10, 15), and this component of visual sensory ability should not be
included in vision tests to access an individual's ability to drive
safely."
...


2.)

[Romana]


Optometrie Clinica si Experimentala - Document Pozitie Oficiala
http://www.optometrists.asn.au/gui/files/ceo854241.pdf
Asociatia Optometristilor din Australia

- in aceasta lucrare sunt atinse mai multe probleme oftalmologice legate de obtinerea carnetului de sofer amator si commercial
in Australia, printre care si elemente legate de vederea dicromata/tricromata.

[Engleza]

Clinical and Experimental Optometry - Position Paper
http://www.optometrists.asn.au/gui/files/ceo854241.pdf
Optometrists Association Australia


3.)


[Romana]

Afectiunile vizuale si conducerea autovehiculelor. Studiu Oftalmologic, 43: 535-550
http://main.uab.edu/show.asp?durki=20543 (rezumat)
Owsley, C., McGwin G. Jr. (1999).

...
"Deficientele de perceptie a culorii, doar prin ele insele, nu reprezinta o amenintare la adresa conducerii in siguranta.
Pe baza literaturii curente, este neclar daca alte tipuri de afectiuni ale sistemului senzorial vizual au vreun impact
semnificativ asupra sigurantei si performantei conducerii auto"
...

[Engleza]

Vision impairment and driving. Survey of Ophthalmology, 43: 535-550
http://main.uab.edu/show.asp?durki=20543 (excerpt)
Owsley, C., McGwin G. Jr. (1999).

...
"Color vision deficiency by itself is not a threat to safe driving.
Based on the current literature, it is unclear whether other types of
visual sensory impairment have a significant impact on driving safety
and performance"
...

4.)

[Romana]

Noi investigatii legate de relatia dintre defectele congenitale
de perceptie a culorii si siguranta traficului auto.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/u2532g8417513426/ (rezumat)
Departamentul de Oftalmologie, Spitalul Universitar, Ghent, Belgia

...
"observatorii deutani sunt mai deficienti decat protanii, in a face
distinctia dintre diversele lumini de semnalizare colorate din trafic precum
si a luminilor de stop ale vehiculelor. (b) cu toate acestea, conducatorii
auto protani si deutani, nu sunt responsabili pentru mai multe accidente in
trafic, decat soferii cu vedere tricromata normala; (c) aceasta aparenta
contradictie se datoreaza unor mecanisme de compensare psihologica.
Concluziile practice sunt: (a) ca persoanele cu deficiente de vedere color
nu trebuie excluse din traficul auto ne-profesionist; (b) cu toate acestea
este folositor ca ei sa fie constienti de handicapul lor; (c) ca semnalul
de trafic rosu, trebuie sa fie mai mare decat celelalte semnale; si (d) ca
luminile de stop si pozitiile rosii ale vehiculelor trebuie sa fie suficient de intense
precum si ca filtrele care transmit doar culoarea rosu pur trebuie evitate
in ele"
...

[Engleza]

New investigations concerning the relationships between congenital
colour vision defects and road traffic security
http://www.springerlink.com/content/u2532g8417513426/ (excerpt)
Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium

...
"deutan observers are more deficient than protan ones for the
distinction of differently coloured traffic lights and vehicle rear
lights; (b) protan and deutan drivers are nevertheless not responsible
for more traffic accidents than drivers with normal colour vision; (c)
this apparent contradiction is due to psychological compensation
mechanisms. The practical conclusions are: (a) that persons with
defective colour vision need not to be excluded from non professional
road traffic; (b) that it is nevertheless useful that they should be
aware of their handicap; (c) that the red traffic signal has to be
larger than the other ones; and (d) that the stop and red position
lights of vehicles must be sufficiently intense and that the filters
transmitting only pure red should be avoided in them"
...

5.)

[Romana]

Avantajele si dezavantajele discromatiilor umane:
http://journalofvision.org/6/3/3/Sharpe-2006-jov-6-3-3.pdf
Institutul de Oftalmologie,
University College Londra, Lindsay T. Sharpe London, Marea Britanie

...
"studii psihofiziologice sugereaza existenta unor avantaje compensatorii
asociate cu deficienta de culoare cauzata de cromozomul X, care
ar putea ajuta in a explica de ce frecventa acestor discromatii este
in mod curios, atat de mare la oameni.
De exemplu, s-a aratat ca protanii si deutanii sunt mai capabili decat
tricromatii, in a identifica anumite tipuri de camuflaje pe baza de culoare,
care interfereaza cu segregarea vizuala bazata pe textura. (Morgan,
Adam, & Mollon, 1992). Mergand chiar mai departe, s-a propus ideea ca
perechile oponente color micsoreaza rolul perechii oponente spatiale,
prin introducerea de zgomot si ca perechea rosu-verde lipsa, in cazul
dicromatiilor cromozomului X, duce la o rezolutie spatiala (Abramov et al.,
2000; Gordon, Delman, Abramov, Tannazzo, & Scuello, 2000) si o acuitate
vizuala mai buna (Ja¨gle, de Luca, Se´rey, Bach, & Sharpe, 2005). In plus,
in mod surprinzator dicromatii par sa fie capabili sa compenseze pentru
informatia cromatica redusa atunci cand vad scene naturale complexe,
deoarece memoria lor vizuala pentru scene color, nu este afectata,
in comparatie cu cea a tricromatilor (Gegenfurtner, Wichman, & Sharpe, 1998)."
...

[Engleza]

Advantages and disadvantages of human dichromacy:
http://journalofvision.org/6/3/3/Sharpe-2006-jov-6-3-3.pdf
Institute of Ophthalmology,
University College London, Lindsay T. Sharpe London, United Kingdom

...
psychophysical studies
suggest compensatory advantages associated with X-linked
color blindness, which may help to explain why the frequency
of X-linked dichromacy is so curiously high in humans.
For instance, protanopes and deuteranopes have
been reported to be better than trichromats at breaking
certain kinds of color camouflage that interfere with segregation
based upon texture (Morgan, Adam, & Mollon,
1992). Further, it has been argued that color opponency
diminishes spatial opponency by introducing chromatic
noise and that the missing redYgreen color opponency
of X-linked dichromacy leads to better spatial resolution
(Abramov et al., 2000; Gordon, Delman, Abramov,
Tannazzo, & Scuello, 2000) and visual acuity (Ja¨gle, de
Luca, Se´rey, Bach, & Sharpe, 2005). In addition, surprisingly,
dichromats seem to be able to compensate for their
reduced chromatic information range when viewing complex
natural scenes because their visual memory for colored
scenes is not impaired, as compared with that of
trichromats (Gegenfurtner, Wichman, & Sharpe, 1998).
...

6.)

[Romana]

Cultura si Cognitie: Ce este Universal in Experienta Reprezentarii Culorilor?
http://aris.ss.uci.edu/cogsci/personnel/kjameson/CultCog8.pdf
Departamentul de Psihologie, Universitatea California, San Diego

- in aceasta lucrare sunt prezentate mai multe aspecte psihologice ale perceptiei culorii la om
relevante in intelegerea problemei deficientelor de culoare la om.

[Engleza]

Culture and Cognition: What is Universal about the Representation of Color Experience?

http://aris.ss.uci.edu/cogsci/personnel/kjameson/CultCog8.pdf
Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego

7.)

[Romana]

Science Week, 18 Iul 2003

http://scienceweek.com/2003/sw030718.htm

...
"Majoritatea mamiferelor sunt dicromate si pot distinge doar intre
doua dimensiuni ale culorilor: deschis versus inchis si albastru versus
galben (1). In contrast cu acestea, indivizii umani sunt tricromati,
o clasa suplimentara de fotoreceptori permitandu-ne astfel sa diferentiem
intre nuante de rosu si verde, care altfel ne-ar aparea identice.
Chiar si asa, aceasta imbunatatire modesta in capabilitatile noastre
vizuale, are costuri ascunde: rarefierea marita a fiecarei matrici de
conuri poate reduce teoretic acuitatea vizuala spatiala, iar indivizii
umani cu vedere color anormala, a caror realitate vizuala este asemanatoare
cu cea a dicromatilor, pot vedea uneori caracteristici camuflate de
sabloane de rosu-verde, pe care tricromatii nu le pot detecta (2)"
...

[Engleza]

Science Week, 18 Jul 2003

http://scienceweek.com/2003/sw030718.htm

...
"Most mammals are dichromats and can only distinguish between
two dimensions of color: bright versus dark and blue versus
yellow (1). In contrast, humans are trichromats, our extra class
of photoreceptor enabling us to discriminate between reds and
greens which would otherwise appear identical. However, this
ostensibly modest improvement in our visual capabilities has
hidden costs: the increased sparsity of each type-specific cone
matrix may theoretically reduce visual spatial acuity, and color-
anomalous ("color-blind") humans, whose visual world is akin to
that of dichromats, can sometimes see features camouflaged by
red–green patterns that trichromats cannot detect (2)"
...

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